Fake git man page
Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations and full access to internals. See gittutorial to get started, then see giteveryday for a useful minimum set of commands. After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about individual Git commands with "git help command". Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used commands. If the option --all or -a is given then all available commands are printed.
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Introduction to Git
Git is a way to store, back up and organise your code. You are working on a software project. As your project grows, and you work on it together with other people, you will need some way of:.
Git can do all these things. It takes a bit of getting used to, but it pays off to learn the basics of Git once and then use it again and again. Some students even keep a git repository for every unit they take so they can keep track of all their work. Git is not the only system that can do this, but it is the most popular one by far and knowing Git is pretty much a requirement for lots of technical job interviews as a developer.
So you might as well learn Git. The aim of this tutorial is to get you to the point where you can use Git productively, and understand some of these manuals if you need to. If you need to install it yourself:. On Windows, if you want to use the fork client then download and install it from git-fork. If you want the command-line version of Git on its own then download and install Git for Windows. On Mac, you first want to install Homebrew by opening a terminal and following the instructions on the page.
Homebrew is a package manager, that is a piece of software that allows you to install other software. This is particularly useful for developers. Then you can install fork from git-fork. On Linux, you will not be able to install Fork, but you can install Git with the package manager provided with your operating system: sudo apt install git on Debian-based systems including Mint and Ubintu and sudo yum install git on Red Hat-based systems.
When you install Fork, it asks for a username and e-mail address. This is a feature of Git, not of Fork itself. Git itself is a command-line tool that lets you manage repositories , which are like folders that track the complete history of everything that has ever happened in them. You always have a repository on your own machine, and you can have further repositories stored on a server.
There are three big online services that offer you free hosting of your own repositories, within reasonable limits:.
All three services currently offer you an unlimited number within reason of private repositories, where only you or people that you allow can see the code. All coursework that you have submitted for credit, or are going to submit for credit, must be in a private repository! If you make it public and someone else submits a copy of your code, you are both in trouble for plagiarism.
To sign up with gitlab, go to the signup page and create an account. Before you can get started with gitlab or one of the other services, a quick word about security. You will only need to follow these steps once per computer before you set up your first repository.
Once you have made an account on Gitlab or another service , you have a username and password. When you want to do a lot of work with Git, you do not want to enter your password every time this is annoying and you also do not want to save your password in clear with your files this is insecure. Instead, you should set up a key pair to use with the service.
You need to do this once per computer you use. From now on, this particular machine can log in to your gitlab account automatically. You need to repeat these steps once per computer that you use and you can remove keys in gitlab if you lose your laptop, for example. A repository is a database with the complete history of your code.
I represent it with this symbol:. Copying code from the working copy to the repository is called a commit. You will do this a lot. Instead of copying the files to a USB stick to take them home, you make a commit.
The basic workflow is this: write or edit some code, commit to the repository, repeat. Your repository, or at least mine for the CNuT notes and exercises, then looks like this:. Each dot is a single commit, with the newest one on top. Sometimes you want to copy code from the repository back to your working copy, for example to undo a change that broke something. This is called a checkout. Your repository, which actually lives in a folder called. At the top you have the menu and toolbar.
Below the toolbar is the tab bar, with one tab per working copy - I currently have five tabs open. To the right is the main window which varies depending in what you select in the list to the left. Currently it is showing the details of the initial commit. Fork now shows Changes 1 in the left bar to show that something has changed in the working copy.
Click on that to see the change:. Under Unstaged Changes you see all the files that have changed since your last commit. Selecting one of these files shows you the file on the right, with lines that you added in green and lines that you deleted in red. When you select a commit in the list, the bottom part of the window tells you the commit details. If you click on the triangle next to a file in the commit screen, it expands to show you the changes in this commit.
This feature is useful for browsing the history of your code to see what line s relate to what commits. When you make a commit, you copy files from the working copy to the local repository. This neither counts as a back-up, nor does it help you share code with others. The idea is that the local and remote repositories are always kept in sync. Fetching is a safe operation in that it cannot cause conflicts, even if someone else has changed code in the meantime. For teamwork, see later in this tutorial.
You can see on the right that the master tag is on the latest commit. Under Remotes , you can see one entry with the default name origin - this is the repository on gitlab.
You can also use the fetch, pull and push options in the Repository menu, then select the branches you want in the dialog box that appears. On the command line, the commands are git fetch , git push and git pull. Choose a name and folder anywhere you like.
This will get you the sources and PDFs of all the material for the CNuT unit, as well as the complete history of how and when I developed it. Have a look at some of my commits. You will be able to make changes to your working copy and your local repository, but you will not of course be able to push changes back to my Gitlab repository.
Note that the URL starts https instead of git. Git calls this situation a conflict , and one of the reasons to use tools like Git in the first place is to help you solve code conflicts. Git cannot unfortunately solve personal conflicts for you.
Git solves conflicts by manipulating time. Instead of a time-line where one event happens after another, Git has a time-graph where different timelines can split and join again. Person one adds a file A.
Person one pushes her changes to Gitlab a. If you get this error, do a fetch instead:. The list on the left will show 1 up, 1 down to indicate this situation too. I should warn you that some people on the internet have strong opinions about this, and that I will continue to ignore these people. It is always safe to try a push. Clicking on a commit shows you which files were changed at the bottom of the window.
If two people changed the same file, you have a real conflict. If you try and pull whether or not you tick the rebase box and you have a real conflict - two people edited the same file - one of two things can happen. Close the error message and open the file in question. Abort gets you back to before you tried to push. You can now try and push again, and if no-one else has changed anything in the meantime, the push will go through and the green tags will move to the top commit.
When two timelines that have diverged join up in a single point again, this is called a merge. A commit is a data structure with the following information:.
Normally, most commits have exactly one parent, except the initial commit which hase none. As long as you do not have any conflicts, your git repository is basically a linked list of commits in the Fork graph view, a dot is a commit and a line leaving a dot downwards is a parent pointer. New commits get added at the start top of the list. In general, the repository is a DAG directed acyclic graph of commits.
However, when two people work on the same repository independently of each other and then commit, you get two commits with the same parent. Some people maintain that you should never change a node once it has been added to the commit graph. In this case, every time you get two nodes with the same parent, you need to make a new commit with two parents called a merge commit to get the same latest version of the code for everyone again.
I disagree - if you do this all the time, then in the worst case 1 in every 3 of your commits will be a merge commit. For example if person one adds edited by person one and person two adds edited by person two , then you might want the final line to read edited by person one and person two. So I suggest using a merge commit pull with rebase off only when you really have a conflict because then the merge commit itself contains useful information. You can imagine that every repository has a table of tags, where each entry contains a tag name and a commit id.
Man page 1 : git-fast-export
Git is a way to store, back up and organise your code. You are working on a software project. As your project grows, and you work on it together with other people, you will need some way of:. Git can do all these things.
This manual is designed to be readable by someone with basic UNIX command-line skills, but no previous knowledge of Git. People needing to do actual development will also want to read Developing with Git and Sharing development with others. Comprehensive reference documentation is available through the man pages, or git-help command. With the latter, you can use the manual viewer of your choice; see git-help for more information. See also Git Quick Reference for a brief overview of Git commands, without any explanation.
git-apply(1) - Linux man page
Unfortunately, I think it's a bad sign when random mambo-jumbo generated by a Markov chain script looks so much like the real stuff Markov chains help a lot in making the output look like the real stuff, that's kinda their purpose in this case. Heck, there have been automatically-generated conference papers that have been accepted and went through peer review although this might tell a lot about that process, too I would guess the same model applied to the J documentation would be equally unreadable for the uninitiated. If the source material was more readable and easier to grasp the automatically-generated versions would reflect that to some degree, until it's obvious that's nonsense. Silkebacon on Apr 10, The generator doesn't use markov chains, it's grammar-based similar to the Dada Engine which powers the postmodernism generator. There's a link to a markov chain based generator in the footer, check it out, it's pretty funny and a lot more random. I stand corrected on that point, then.
Documentation Source Text
You can use it as a human-readable bundle replacement see git-bundle 1 , or as a kind of an interactive git filter-branch. When asking to abort which is the default , this program will die when encountering a signed tag. With strip , the tags will silently be made unsigned, with warn-strip they will be made unsigned but a warning will be displayed, with verbatim , they will be silently exported and with warn , they will be exported, but you will see a warning. When asking to abort which is the default , this program will die when encountering such a tag. With drop it will omit such tags from the output.
Improvements and typo fixes on secondary pages. This article attempts to answer that question. If you like Git and want to use it, that's great. I do not like Git and would rather use something that I think is better.
git-fast-export(1) - Linux man page
Reads the supplied diff output i. When running from a subdirectory in a repository, patched paths outside the directory are ignored. With the --index option the patch is also applied to the index, and with the --cached option the patch is only applied to the index.